Part 2 [echo & ls] - Know your commands
Hey folks, this is part 2 of the series
Know your commands.
If you are new here, please also checkout the other parts of this series.
- Part 1 - pwd & cd
- Part 2 - echo & ls
- Part 3 - touch & mkdir
In this part I will be covering the use of echo and ls commands.
echo command is used to output the strings that is being passed as an argument.
echo [optional flag] [string]
$ echo "This will be print to the console" This will be print to the console
ls stands for List. It is used to list the files and folders in current working directory.
ls [optional flags] [optional directory]
$ pwd /home/subin $ ls Desktop Documents Downloads Music Pictures
ls [folder_path]- This command lists the files and folders in the specified path. The
folder_pathcan be absolute or relative.
$ pwd /home/subin $ ls Downloads movie
ls -a- By default all files and folders that starts with
.dot are hidden on your system. These files are hidden but yet it can be accessed by the system or any application installed. So don’t try to rename you
Study materialfolder to start with a dot to escape from your parents 😉. These Dot Files are just plain text configuration files. These files can be listed using the flag
$ pwd /home/subin $ ls -a .bashrc .config Desktop Documents Downloads Music Pictures
ls -l- This command provides a long list. Running this command will return folder and files with additional details lik
permissions, owner, group, size, etc
$ pwd /home/subin $ ls -l drwxrwxr-x 2 subin subin 4096 Nov 2 18:01 Desktop drwxrwxr-x 8 subin subin 4096 Oct 12 20:55 Documents drwxrwxr-x 3 subin subin 4096 Feb 10 2019 Downloads drwxrwxr-x 3 subin subin 4096 Feb 3 2019 Music drwxrwxr-x 3 subin subin 4096 Feb 7 2019 Pictures #Mutiple flags can be combined $ ls -la -rw-r--r-- 1 subin subin 3488 Oct 20 2018 .bashrc drwx------ 3 subin subin 4096 May 5 2018 .config drwxrwxr-x 2 subin subin 4096 Nov 2 2018 Desktop drwxrwxr-x 8 subin subin 4096 Oct 12 2018 Documents drwxrwxr-x 3 subin subin 4096 Feb 10 2019 Downloads drwxrwxr-x 3 subin subin 4096 Feb 3 2019 Music drwxrwxr-x 3 subin subin 4096 Feb 7 2019 Pictures
Command Description ls -lh Long list with readable file size ls -R Lists the directory tree recursively ls -r Displays the list in Reverse order ls -s Displays the list with File Size ls -S The displayed list is sorted by File Size ls -t The displayed list is sorted by Time & Data ls -x The displayed list is sorted by Extension
The above flags can be combined in multiple ways to build complex results.
As of now you should be familiar with
pwd, cd, echo, ls, with these you should be able to comfortably navigate between the file system with ease. So why wait, let’s celebrate your accomplishment.
The next part of this series will focus on
mkdir commands. Stay tuned
Note: All examples above are based on below imaginary directory structure.
. ├── home │ └── subin │ ├── .bashrc │ ├── .config │ ├── Downloads │ │ └── movie │ │ └── some_movie.mp4 │ ├── Desktop │ ├── Documents │ │ └── test_doc.txt │ ├── Music │ └── Pictures ├── lib ├── opt └── tmp